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Basel-Landschaft (Baselland) is one of the smaller among Switzerland's 26 cantons. The canton is located in the northern part of the country, bordering Germany to the north and France to the northwest. Baselland is also bounded by the canton of Basel-Stadt to the north, the canton of Aargau to the east, the canton of Solothurn to the south, and the canton of Jura to the west. The territory is of irregular shape, with two exclaves of the Solothurn canton within its territory. Liestal, the canton's capital city, is located in the region's central part. Regarding geography and nature, most of the Basel-Landschaft territory is covered by the Jura mountains. A considerable amount of the Baselland's territory is forested. However, agricultural land that is generally utilized for fruit growing, dairy farming, and cattle breeding constitute a portion of the territory as well. Wasserfallen region of Basel-Landschaft is one of the most visited attractions in the canton. The area with numerous panoramic views of the surrounding mountain complexes can be reached by gondolas. Beyond the views, Wasserfallen is often visited by tourists seeking nature recreation, such as walking and hiking. Baselland is internationally known through the company Ricola, which originated in the canton. Nowadays, the company's herb gardens can be visited in various places in Switzerland, Baselland being one of them. Reportedly the best time to visit Basel-Landschaft canton is during May, June, and September when temperatures reach around 23°C.
Wasserfallen region is one of Baselland's popular natural areas, mainly among tourists seeking various outdoor activities. A preferable starting point for the Wasserfallen region is the Wasserfallenbahn, a cable car that takes tourists to the top of the Wasserfallen mountains. During the ride, people can enjoy panoramic views of the surrounding nature. The distant mountain peaks of the Alps, Black Forest, and Vosges may also be seen when taking a hike in the Wasserfallen region, as the whole area is intertwined with walking and hiking trails. Beyond hiking and enjoying the panoramic views, Wasserfallen also offers scooter rides, Llama trekking, and an abundance of mountain restaurants. Next to the mountain station of the aforementioned Riegoldswil-Wasserfallen gondola lift can be found the Wasserfallen forest rope park. The predominant feature of the rope park is the "Wassi-Flyer" rope slide, which is 150m long, allowing visitors to float over a pond.
Ricola, based in Laufen, Baselland, is a family company with an international presence, producing herbal drops and mints. The company was founded in the 20th century and since then it has produced natural, high-quality herb products. Several Ricola herb gardens are scattered across Swiss mountains, where natural methods are used to cultivate 13 herbs that are part of Ricola drops. These herb gardens serve as a natural haven as well as a popular attraction. One of the show gardens is located in the village of Nenzlinger in the county of Basel-Landschaft, offering views of the Jura Mountains. The Nenzlinger garden can be accessed from the hiking route that runs along the Blauen crest in the Jura mountains.
Regarding historical heritage within Baselland's borders, there's the Augusta Raurica, a monument that has been preserved since the Roman times, when Basel territory was part of the Roman Empire. The excavations close to Pratteln city revealed a well shaft, the longest accessible sewage canal from Roman times. In the area is also located an amphitheater, built in 170 AD, an ancient theatre from 200 AD, remains of an ancient bathing facility, a basilica, and more. However, one of the prime attractions is the Roman house, a copy of a Roman Pompeii villa, offering visitors an idea of the living conditions of ancient Romans.
Basel-Landschaft is located in the northern central part of Switzerland, serving as a state border with France to the northwest and Germany to the north. The canton can be described as being of irregular shape, surrounding two territories of Solothurn Canton from three sides. Additionally, Basel-Landschaft's borders cut across several cities. The canton also is one of the smallest self-governing territories in Switzerland. In terms of natural conditions, Basel-Landschaft is traversed by Jura Mountains and is drained mainly by the Ergolz and Birs rivers. Forests cover approximately 200 square miles of the canton's land. The remaining territory is used for food growing, dairy farming, and cattle breeding. Some of the woods in the Basel-Landschaft are beeches, oaks, and conifers. Apart from the woods, the local landscape comprises several other habitats, such as stagnant waters, rivers, and rocks. The variety of habitats allows for a considerably wide spectrum of animal and plant species that inhabit Basel-Landschaft's territory; among them are lynxes, foxes, beavers, wolves, and hares, to name a few.
Located in the central part of Europe, Basel-Landschaft's climate is primarily continental. Concerning the average temperatures in Baselland's capital, Liestal, the warmest month is July, with an average daily temperature of 26°C. January is the coldest month, with an average temperature of 5°C. February tends to be the driest month in Liestal due to having 44 mm of rainfall on average. The most precipitation falls during May, receiving about 101 mm on average. Reportedly, the "best time" to visit Basel-Landschaft is May, June, and September, when temperatures are around 20-25°C.
The earliest traces of inhabitation of Basel territory are dated to the Paleolithic period, approximately 130,000 years ago, when Basel City was settled. The banks of the Rhine river, together with Cathedral Hill, represented some of the main settlement areas during the Bronze and Iron Ages. In the first century BC, Celtic tribes inhabited the territory. Their settlement was fortified by the "Murus Gallicus," the Gallic Wall, whose remains can still be seen near the cathedral. Later, the Roman Empire came to power, with Basel territory also becoming part of it.
Basel-Landschaft's territory belonged to the city of Basel until the end of the 16th century. Only after Napoleon visited the area did the city and the lands achieve equality. However, the rural areas surrounding Basel were still dependent on the city in terms of transportation and transactions, as the rural population lacked education and literacy. Thus, the city of Basel remained the economic and cultural center of both Basel demicantons. After several quarrels and disagreements concerning rural population rights, the canton Basel-Landschaft became separated from the Basel-City on August 26th, 1833. Since then, there has always been a movement for reunification. Yet in the referendum, which took place in 1969, the population of Basel-Landschaft voted mainly against the merging of the two demi-cantons, presumably because of Basel-Landschaft's increasing economic independence.
Basel-Landschaft recorded considerable economic growth after the Second World War, which was then reportedly the highest in Switzerland. Nowadays, Basel-Landschaft is still primarily rural. However, several international corporations and life sciences enterprises have settled in the canton territory. Concerning religion, some of the most represented churches in the Basel-Landschaft Canton are Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Christian Catholic.
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