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Łódź Voivodeship is one of 16 voivodeships contributing to the Poland territory. The voivodeship is situated in the central part of the region, bordered by six other provinces. To the north is the voivodeship bordered by Kujawsko-Pomorskie, to the east by Mazowieckie, to the southeast by Świętokrzyskie, to the south by Śląskie, to the southwest by Opolskie, and to the west by Wielkopolskie. The voivodeship stretches over an area of 18,218.95 square kilometers and is divided into 24 counties. The capital city, Łódź, located in the central part of the voivodeship, is the largest city and an industrial, cultural, and historical metropolis that is known chiefly for its extensive textile industry tradition. The area of the voivodeship is inhabited by approximately 2,448,713 people, which adds up to a population density of approximately 134 people per square kilometer. The Łódź Voivodeship territory comprises mostly flat and lowland landscapes, with hills protruding into the area from the southeastern direction. The prevailing climate is of a mild and dry character.
Łódź Voivodeship offers a reported great variety of natural, historical, and cultural sights. The capital city, Łódź, has been connected to the textile industry throughout its history. Additionally, the area is also known for movie production, and within the city is the Polish National Film School and Museum of Cinematography. The museum offers various exhibitions, teaching about the birth and history of Polish cinematography.
Among other artistic sights belongs the Museum of Art or Grand Theatre. However, the Factory Museum holds the predominance among the museums, showcasing the history of the textile industry in Łódź, the ancient textile production tools, the techniques of producing cotton fabrics, and the daily work of former workers.
Concerning modern art, one of the predominant sights in the Łódź city is the Rose Passage, which was installed in 2014, initially as part of the Łódź Festival of Four Cultures. The Passage walls of the courtyard at 3 Piotrkowska Street are tightly covered with pieces of small, irregularly cut mirrors. The mirror pieces of different shapes and sizes cover the facade and create a mosaic. The mirrors cover all architectural details, such as glyphs, doors, jambs, cornices, steps, and niches.
The capital city, Łódź, is the birthplace of the world-renowned pianist Arthur Rubinstein, sometimes regarded as the greatest pianist of all time. Rubinstein moved to the US mainly due to his Jewish origin and Germany's conduct during the Second World War. He became a US citizen in 1946. Rubinstein provided the piano soundtrack for several films while living in California, including Song of Love with Katharine Hepburn. He also appeared in the movies Carnegie Hall and Of Men and Music.
In the Łódź Voivodeship territory is situated a Uniejów town, which features a spacious thermal spa complex. The thermal water that comes to the surface from a depth of two kilometers was proven to have numerous health benefits due to its' high content of minerals. The baths are a popular destination for patients with rheumatism, discopathy, or neuralgia. The complex provides numerous pools concerned with patient care and features water slides and restaurants.
In the village of Łowicz, the Łowicz Museum serves as a significant historical location, showcasing the Polish art and historical artifacts from the region. Part of the complex features the Open-Air Folk Architecture Center exhibiting the houses and lifestyles in the traditional village.
Łódź Voivodeship is located in the central part of the Poland territory. The area is composed of mainly flat and lowland landscapes. To the west is the Wielkopolska Lowland, and to the north lies the Mazovian Lowland. South-eastern parts are hilly, composed of the South Mazovian Heights to the east and Woźniki-Wieluń Upland to the south. One-fifth of the total area is covered in forests comprised mainly of pine trees. The soil quality is relatively lower. Nevertheless, farming plays a significant role in the local economy. Mostly rye, potatoes, sugar beets, fodder, vegetables, and fruit are cultivated in the territory.
Łódź Voivodeship has a water deficit. Some significant rivers are Warta, Pilica, Bzura, and Ner. On the Pilica river, there was a reservoir established. Sulejowskie Lake, in an attempt to improve the water conditions. However, the largest reservoir in the voivodeship, Jeziorsko, is on the Warta River, situated in the western part of the territory.
Blue Springs Natural Reserve, located in the south-eastern part of the city of Tomaszów Mazowiecki, is a significant preservation area for its Europe-unique karst phenomena. The karst springs in that area are located on the aquifer, made up of fractured Jurassic limestones. The limestone bottom, combined with the effect of diffused sunlight, creates sharp blue-green colors, which appear to be glowing from the bottom of the lakes.
The capital city, Łódź, is the manufacturing metropolis of the voivodeship and one of Poland's largest industrial areas. The capital started as a textile industry headquarters and was often nicknamed "Polish Manchester" or the "lingerie capital of Poland." Among the most prospering industries are textile and clothing, pharmaceuticals, rubber, food and beverage processing, machine making, ceramics, and logging. In the city of Bełchatów is located a brown coal power plant, one of the largest of its' kind in Europe, significantly contributing to Poland's energy production.
Łódź Voivodeship is situated in the central Poland territory's mild and dry climatic area. The warmest month is July, with an average daily temperature of 24°C. January is the coldest month, with an average temperature of 1°C. The driest month is April, with an average of 34 mm of rainfall. The most precipitation falls during July, with an average of 90.0 mm. June is the sunniest month, with 251 hours of sunshine on average.
Łódź Voivodship territory was first united under the ruling dynasty of Piasts in the 10th century. Łęczyca city was the main stronghold, later becoming the duchy's capital. Ever since its establishment, the area has prospered and developed, not only politically but also economically. The textile trade was most common in the territory, which persisted over the years. As a result of the capital city, Łódź, becoming the textile industry metropolis, the city has one of the highest feminization rates among Poland's major cities nowadays. Due to its long tradition of textile produce and trade, a large number of female employees started to work there, significantly influencing today's demographics of the city.
Economic development stopped due to the series of epidemics brought on by the wars with Sweden in the 17th century. As a result of the Partitions of Poland, which took place in 1772, 1793, and 1795, Poland, as an autonomic land, ceased to exist. Its territory was divided between Russia, Prussia, and Austria. The area of Łódź Voivodeship became under the rule of Prussia. Later, it became part of the Duchy of Warsaw, part of the Kingdom of Poland, belonging to Russia. In that period, weavers from Silesia, Great Poland Voivodeship, Saxony, and Bohemia began settling in Łódź, helping with the development of the textile industry. The Kingdom of Poland began to export goods primarily to China and Russia, which could mainly be attributed to industrial plants based in Łódź and its voivodeship.
Before World War II, the city of Łódź had one of the biggest Jewish populations in Europe. However, during the war, a Jewish concentration camp was established in the city, which caused a radical decrease in the Jewish population. Additionally, numerous residents were exported to Germany as forced laborers, further decreasing the population of the region. Multiple factories and infrastructure was destroyed by Germans as well. Nevertheless, after the war, the city and voivodeship continued to be the center of the light industry. To this day, Poland is one of the most religious countries in Europe. The most represented in Łódź Voivodeship is Roman Catholicism.
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