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Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County is one of the 19 counties contributing to the Hungary territory. The county is located in the central part of Eastern Hungary, in the heart of the Northern Great Plain Region. Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok neighbors Heves county as well as Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén to the north. Hajdú-Bihar and Békés county border Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok to the east. Csongrád-Csanád County borders the county to the south, Bács-Kiskun County to the southwest, and Pest County to the west. Szolnok, the center of transport, trade, education, and tourism, is the county's capital city. The most significant river flowing through the region is the Tisza, which played a vital role in the development of settlements in the county. Almost half of the area's settlements are situated at the Tisza's shores or its largest tributaries. Smaller towns and farm settlements are more common in the region. The county's biggest agglomerations are the cities of Szolnok, Jászberény, and Karcag. Concerning the geographical and natural traits of the region, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok is located in the Great Plain. Thus, the county's territory is formed mainly by a flat plain characterized by low-level differences. Some of the natural protected areas protruding from the county's environment are Hortobágy National Park, the Kiskunság National Park, and the Körös-Maros National Park.[1] Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County consists of nine districts, adding up to a total area of 5581.71 kilometers squared. The county has 386,752 inhabitants and a population density of 71.5 people per kilometer squared. [2]

What Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok is known for

The capital city of the Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County is Szolnok, which is presumably also one of the historically and culturally wealthiest cities in the area. Szolnok synagogue is located in the city's center and was built in 1898. The building features Neo-Romanesque and Neo-Moorish elements. The building can still be located in the Szolnok Gallery. [5] Another sought-after sight of the city is the Reformed Church in Szolnok, designed by architect Sztehlo Otto in the neo-gothic style, and built-in 1893-1894. The Reformed Church was the first of its kind in Szolnok. [6]

Concerning natural attractions, lake Tisza, in Hungarian also known as Kisköre Reservoir, is the biggest artificial lake in Hungary, situated on the borders with Heves county. It is used for water recreation and is also part of the Hortobágy National Park, which has been inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1999. The central portion of the Hortobágy National Park is situated in Hajdú-Bihar County; however, part of the protected landscape protrudes to the Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County as well. The park is Hungary's largest protected area and most extensive grassland in Europe. [8]Except for this national park, which is home to numerous endangered and protected species, such as Hungarian Grey cattle, Racka sheep, water buffalo, and horses. The area features a fair amount of attractions, such as Dark Sky Park, Tiszakürt Arboretum, and Wild and Puszta Animal Park. [7]


The whole territory of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County is situated in Northern Great Plain Region. Thus, the surface is plain and flat, with minimum altitude differences. Several natural protected areas are partly located in the county's territory, for example, the Kiskunság National Park, the Körös-Maros National Park, and Hortobágy National Park. In the area of Hortobágy National Park and the south-eastern part of Lake Tisza is in the path of migrating birds where they also nest. The Middle Tisza Landscape Protection Area can be found in close proximity to the city of Szolnok. Most of the other natural protected areas are located in the river valleys, saline steppes, loess remnants, marsh remnants, woodworms, arboretums, and nesting sites. One of the richest arboretums is the Tiszakürt Arboretum which was installed in the 1800s. In current times, the arboretum is composed of over 900 plant species. The county is also rich in thermal waters and baths, for example, in Cserkeszőlő, Berekfürdő, Jászapáti, Jászberény, Szolnok, Karcag, Kisújszállás, Mezőtúr, Tiszafüred or Túrkeve.[1]

The land of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County is of high fertility and quality and gets an increased number of sunshine hours throughout the year. Due to the reason that the area is used primarily for farming, the cultivation of wheat, rice, corn, sunflower and pig, sheep, and cattle breeding occurs in this territory. As a result of field crop production predominance, the landscape is mainly formed by continuous fields and steppe. Fields are, in some places, interrupted by acacia and meadow pastures. These areas are also in close proximity to rivers that occur over diverse floodplains. Some of the biggest floodplains are those of Tisza, Hármas-Körös, and Lake Tisza. [1]

The climate of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County has distinctive features. Precipitation is relatively low and unevenly distributed with frequent droughts.[1] On average, the warmest month of the year is August at 28.0°C. January is the coldest month, with an average temperature of 3.0°C. The wettest month on average is June, with 73.0 mm of precipitation. The driest month of the year is January, with 27.0 mm of rainfall.[4]


The area of today's Szolnok city was first inhabited in the Paleolithic era by mammoths, reindeer, deer, and boar hunters. This area also had equipment and other proofs of settlements from the Neolithic and Mesolithic periods, as well as from the Bronze Age. Later, the area was inhabited by Scythians, Celts, and Sarmatians. Avars first appeared in the middle of the 6th century. Hungarian tribes arrived in Szolnok's territory in 896. Szolnok was first mentioned as Zounok in the letter, dating back to 1075. During the Árpád Dynasty's rule, Szolnok was an important market town and center of Szolnok County. The 11th century brought essential improvements to the city, and county business developed rapidly. Tisza river played a vital role in this development as a meditator of trade and commerce via ferry transport. Szolnok remained a market town through the Middle Ages. In 1241, the city was invaded and destroyed by Mongols. The repopulation took place under the rule of King Béla IV. The town slowly began to prosper again by the end of the 15th century. As a result of its central position, Szolnok Castle played an essential role in the border castle system of the 16th century; however, in 1552, the Castle was invaded by Turks. The Turkish occupation of Szolnok lasted from 1552 to 1685, when the Habsburgs liberated the town. The position of Szolnok Castle was relatively strategically important. Thus it was rebuilt; however, it was destroyed together with the city during the Rákóczi Uprising in 1703 and 1706. In the 18th century, Szolnok started to prosper again, and in 1847 a railway connected Szolnok and Pest. In 1876, Szolnok became the capital of the comitatus, and by 1879, it already had approximately 16,000 residents. The First World War brought severe destruction to the city, and from 1919 until 1920, the city was occupied by Romanians. During the interwar period was when most of the damaged city was restored. The Second World War caused another destruction to the town when Szolnok was bombed twelve times, primarily by American troops, which caused severe damage to the buildings and the population. In 1944, was in Szolnok established a "labor camp", a concentration point for Hungarian Jews who were to be deported to Mauthausen in Austria. By the end of the war, the majority of Szolnok's population had fled the city. Soviet troops finally freed the city on the 4th of November 1944. The Soviets established socialism after the war, and Szolnok began to recover. On November 13th, 1990, Szolnok was granted the rank of the county city and became the capital of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County.[3]