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Hajdú-Bihar County is one of the 19 counties of Hungary, located in the state's easternmost area, part of the Northern Great Plain region. The county's area is 6,210 kilometers squared, which makes it the fourth-largest county in Hungary. The county is bordered by Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg and Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén counties to the north. To the south, the county neighbors Békés County and to the west by Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County. Hajdú-Bihar County also forms a state border with Romania to the east. The territory of the Hajdú-Bihar County is mainly formed by lowland, which belongs entirely to the Great Plain. The northeastern part is formed by Nyírség sandy area. Western edges are occupied by the Tisza region Hortobágy. Central parts of the territory are represented by Hajdúság historical region. The Hajdú-Bihar is primarily dry, with the Tisza river touching the north-western border of the county. Through the southern parts of the country flow Berettyó and the Sebes-Körös rivers. The area consists of numerous stagnant waters, groundwaters, and thermal waters of various origins. [1] The region's capital city is Debrecen, located in close proximity to the Romanian state borders. Hajdú-Bihar County consists of ten districts with a total population of 537,268 inhabitants. The approximate population density is 87.2 inhabitants per kilometer squared. [2]

What Hajdu-Bihar is known for

Debrecen is the capital city of the Hajdú-Bihar County and one of the popular touristic destinations as well. In the central area of the city, the Great Church, or Nagytemplom, occupies land, and its construction was finished in 1827; however, the current foundations of the Great Church were formerly a church site since the 13th century, when the St. Andrew's Church was built there. The Great Church was built in neoclassical style and is the largest Reformed church in Hungary. In 1991, II. Pope John Paul also served in the Great Church. Today, the church offers various exhibitions, tours, and pedagogical classes. [5] Another attraction of the Debrecen city is Nagyerdei Park Forest, the biggest park in the town. Nagyerdei Park Forest is Hungary's first conservation area. The “Mist Theatre” of the park features a 10-m-high curtain of water that can be used as a movie screen. The park also provides an amphitheater, where musical and theatrical events are held. [6] On the outskirts of the city is situated the Debrecen Adventure Park. The park has an area of 70,000 square meters and offers visitors several indoor and outdoor activities, experience elements, and programs. The city also provides a number of cultural attractions, such as the Déri Museum or MODEM Modern and Contemporary Arts Centre.  [7]

Concerning the natural attractions of the Hajdú-Bihar County, the Hortobágy National Park is located in its territory, with an area of 800 kilometers squared. The park is part of the Great Plain and was elected among the UNESCO World Heritage sites in 1999. The park is Hungary's largest protected area, and it is also the most extensive semi-natural grassland in Europe. Hortobágy area is a steppe and is inhabited by Hungarian Grey cattle, Racka sheep, water buffalo, and horses. The horsemanship tradition is typical for the area of the Great Plain and Hortobágy as well. Hortobágy is also a center for the breeding of Taurus cattle. [8] Hortobágy additionally features various touristic attractions, such as Wild and Puszta Animal Park, Dark Sky Park, Tiszakürt Arboretum, and Cégénydányád Castle Park. Among the ethnographic exhibitions are, for example, the Herdsman Museum or Körszín craftsmen's work exhibition. [9]

In the Hajdú region of the Hajdú-Bihar County, a Hajdúszoboszló Bell House can be found. The Bell House serves as the location and presentation of the Oborzil bell heritage that was donated to the city. In the circle-shaped open house are placed 50 pieces of aluminum bells inherited by the town of Hajdúszoboszló. The house plays a role in the preservation and presentation of these bells.[10] The whole territory of Hajdú-Bihar County contains an abundance of thermal waters and spas; however, the most prominent among them is Hungarospa in Hajdúszoboszló, the largest spa complex in Europe. The bathing complex consists of thermal baths, an open-air spa, an aquapark, indoor swimming pools, a sauna world, and wellness. Part of the area consists of medical baths, aiming mainly at the treatment of rheumatic illnesses, chronic locomotor disorders, degenerative illnesses, and locomotor disorders of surgical, neurological, internal, and dermatological origins.[11]


The Hajdú-Bihar County is formed by a uniform lowland area belonging to the Great Plain. The highest point of the territory is at an altitude of 170.5 m, whereas the lowest point is at an altitude of approximately 85 m above sea level. The largest formed geographical areas are the Hajdúhát and Hajdúság regions, located in the central part of the region. Western borders are represented by Hortobágy, one of the Tisza's regions. The sandy landscape of Nyírség forms the north-eastern portion. The typical soil types in this region are meadow, casting, solonetz, and andy soils. In terms of waters, the territory is relatively dry. The largest river, Tisza, touches the north-western borders of the region. Berettyó and the Sebes-Körös are other notable rivers; however, the domain contains many stagnant bodies of water, presumably most predominant among them being thermal waters. The thermal waters are of national significance and are located in this territory offering medicinal and health benefits. Regarding agriculture, tomatoes and green peas production are also dominant at the national level.[1]

Concerning the Hajdú-Bihar climate, the conditions are similar to the rest of the Great Plain area, with dry summers and slightly colder winters. The area of Hajdúság in the center of the region forms a transition between colder areas of Nyírség and warmer parts of Middle Tiszavidék and Hortobágy.[1] On average, the warmest month of the year is August at 26.0°C. January is the coldest month, with an average temperature of 0.0°C. The wettest month on average is June, with 80.0mm of precipitation. The driest month of the year is February, with 30.0mm of rainfall. July is the sunniest month, with 282 hours of sunshine on average.[3]


As a result of favorable climatic and geographical conditions, the area of Hajdú-Bihar was widely settled. Nearly 1,700 archaeological sites were registered in Hajdú-Bihar County in January 2007. Every settlement in the county consists of at least one archaeological site. Since ancient times, Vandals, Goths, Sarmatians, Gepids, and Avars have settled in today's Debrecen area. First mentions of the city of Debrecen can be dated back to 1235. The city's development is characterized by decades following the Tartar invasion, and in a short time, the town became one of the dominant cities in the country. In 1361, the privilege of markets was granted to the city. Since the 15th century, the town was granted more and more privileges, one of the most notable was the right to hold fairs. Fairs attracted a number of traders and tourists into the city, which helped increase the economy. The growth was interrupted by another Turkish invasion; however, in the 17th century, the development started again, and the city became an essential part of the trade routes connecting the Great Plain with Transylvania and the Highlands. In 1693, Debrecen was granted the rank of a free royal city. [4]

Other significant settlements of the Hajdú-Bihar are the Hajdú towns, the settlements of the former Hajdú region. The Hajdú area was settled by shepherds who took care of trade with animals. Hajdú District was established at the end of the 17th century and functioned as an independent legislature until 1876. The third settlement contributing to today's Hajdú-Bihar County is part of the former Bihor county. Between 1020 and 1050, the Árpádian castle manor was established around Bihar's earthen castle, which played a vital role during Turkish invasions. Later, it became part of the Transylvanian Principality in Romania. Until the end of World War I, Bihor was the largest county in Hungary. Only part of the former Bihor County contributes to today's Hungary's Hajdú-Bihar County. During the last century, the administration of the county changed immensely. Hajdú-Bihar county, as we know it today, was established after World War II., from the pre-1938 counties Hajdú and Bihar.[4]