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Csongrád County is one of the 19 counties of Hungary, located in the southern part of the country. The county is situated on the southern borders of the Northern Great Plain region. Csongrád County neighbors Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County to the north, Békés County to the east, and Bács-Kiskun County to the west. Csongrád territory also forms a Hungarian state border with Romania and Serbia to the south. The landscape structure of Csongrád county is relatively diverse compared to the size of the county. Csongrád territory can be divided into three microregions, the plain between the Danube and the Tisza, the Lower Tisza, and the Körös-Maros. Each of these microregions offers different natural conditions. The location of the Csongrád County can be considered by many to be favorable, as it is situated at the crossroads of transport and trade routes, thus playing a relatively vital role in mediating foreign trade and transit. The current capital city of the Csongrád county is Szeged, which occupies land in the region's southern parts. [1] The county's total area is approximately 4,263 kilometers squared, representing 4.58% of the size of Hungary. This area is inhabited by 406,205 people, which adds up to a population density of 95.31 people per square kilometer. [2]

What Csongrad is known for

Szeged is a cultural and economic metropolis and also the capital city of Csongrád County. The city accumulates a substantial number of historical and cultural sights from different eras. One example is the Votive Church and Cathedral of Our Lady of Hungary, located on the Dóm square beside the Dömötör tower. The construction of the church began in 1913; however, due to the war, it wasn't finished until 1930. The cathedral is the fourth-largest church in Hungary, and it also contains one of the largest organs in Europe. [5] Another cultural sight of Szeged is the Szeged Synagogue, which was built in 1902. The building is designed in a combination of two styles, Art Nouveau and Historicist style, sometimes known as the Magyar style. The Szeged Synagogue is the second largest synagogue in Hungary and the 4th largest in the world.[6]

The Ópusztaszer Heritage Park is a Hungarian Adventure park offering over 40 different programs. The park is located at the Hungarian first “parliament” site, in the small proximity to the city of Ópusztaszer. This Heritage Park is committed to teaching and honoring the history of Hungary through various channels, such as exhibiting paintings, architecture, open-air museum village, or hosting horse shows.[7] Another attraction of Ópusztaszer is the Labyrinth of Csillagösvény. The maze is relatively unique, as it is said to be the most extensive hedge maze in Europe. Built from natural ingredients, the labyrinth offers logic puzzles and folk and children’s games. The maze also provides various programs, such as Night Labyrinth, and Number War Field, and also features Yurts and the Garden of Attila.[8]


The landscape of the Csongrád County can be divided into three subregions, the plain between the Danube and the Tisza, the Lower Tisza, and the Körös-Maros. Each of these middle regions is considered to be unique in its natural conditions, creating notable diversity and different complex landscape conditions for the development of the settlement system, agriculture, water management, and nature protection throughout the county. The three middle regions can be further divided into microregions, the Dorozsma-Majsa sandbar, the Kiskunság loess dam, and to a small extent, the Pilisi-Alpar sandbar; the South Tisza Valley and the Marosszög; and the Békés-Csongrád plain, the Circular Corner and, to a lesser extent, the Békési Ridge. The hydrography of Csongrád county is diverse. The Csongrád's main watercourses are the Tisza river and its backwaters, the Maros and the Körös rivers; however, the territory has many lakes and canals as well. In Csongrád territory is also located a substantial number of both thermal and medicinal bodies of water. One-fifth of Hungary's thermal water supply originates in the Csongrád area. The country's most significant oil and gas reserves, accounting for more than half of national domestic production, are also accumulated in Csongrád county.[1] The highest point of the Csongrád County is Ásotthalom, at an altitude of 125m above sea level. The lowest point is Gyálarét, at an altitude of 78 m above sea level, which is also the lowest point in Hungary. [2]

The territory of Csongrád County is generally flat. The area gets a high number of sunshine hours during the day and has relatively excellent soil. These conditions make Csongrád territory one of the most important agricultural areas of Hungary. The most significant agricultural products are paprika from Szeged and onions from Makó. The area's grain, vegetables, and fruit production are also in large amounts. Half of Hungary's total agricultural production originates in the Csongrád County, which is also rich in oil and natural gas.[2]

Concerning the climate of the Csongrád territory, the county is located in the dry continental climate area, with additional Mediterranean and oceanic effects. In terms of sunlight, Csongrád county is the country's wealthiest region, with the number of sunshine hours exceeding 2,000. The average annual temperature is higher than the country average as well. [1] On average, the warmest month of the year is August at 27.0°C. January is the coldest month, with an average temperature of 1.0°C. The wettest month on average is June, with 72.0mm of precipitation. The driest month of the year is February, with 25.0mm of rainfall.[3]


The first settlers of the Csongrád County territory were Huns and Avars and later Hungarians. In 1075, the Csongrád County was established by King Stephen, with its center in Csongrád. Today's largest city in the region, Szeged, was established in the 11th century. The Csongrád County population was mainly formed of fishermen, farmers, and shepherds. In 1233, a Benedictine monastery in the city of Szeged was established. It became an essential part of the city as it had its first separate hospital. The county's development was interrupted by the Tatar invasions, the villages and towns of Csanád and Csongrád counties were robbed and burned. The county became uninhabited after the Tartar invasion, and the most prosperous cities, Szeged, Csanád, Csongrád, and Vásárhely, were destroyed. The area was only repopulated again by Béla, who invited foreigners, primarily Germans, to help start the development and growth of urban culture again. Tatars destroyed the castle of Csongrád, resulting in the castle in Szeged taking its place, increasing the prominence of the Szeged, which gradually led to Szeged becoming the capital of the Csongrád county. In 1465, King Matthias convened the national council in Szeged, and in the 16th century, Szeged became highly industrialized, which led to further urbanization. The population of Szeged was comparable to Buda, Pest, and Kassa, some of the biggest cities of Hungary at that time; however, the Turkish invasion stopped the area's development again until 1686, when Csongrád county was liberated. Guild life started again in the early 1700s. Szeged played a vital role in the 1848 revolution and the war of independence. The end of the First World War and the Treaty of Trianon caused a decrease in Hungary's area, bringing Szeged closer to the Romanian borders. Szeged became a center of light and food industry during socialist times. In 1965, oil was found near the city, which increased the city’s heavy industry even more. In 1962, Szeged became the seat of Csongrád county, and new parts of the town were built, creating today's image of the city.[4]