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The Newcastle upon Tyne Destination represents an area on the borders between England and Scotland. The landscape is assembled from a considerable number of national parks and other protected territories. With an oceanic climate that secures different weather conditions during summers and winters, the area is home to various protected wildlife species. Among particularly sought-after regions in the Newcastle upon Tyne Destination is the North Pennines AONB, which is also a Global Geopark protected by UNESCO. The Isle of Man is the only island that belongs to the Newcastle upon Tyne Destination. The isle is located in the Irish Sea, to the east of Ireland. Newcastle upon Tyne, the city after which the destination is named, is regarded as an educational, economic, and historic hub of the territory. Located on the shores of the North Sea, the city has been known for centuries as the shipbuilding center. Newcastle, a city within the destination, has a history going back to the Roman Empire. Nowadays, Newcastle is inhabited by approximately 300,200 people. The city is visited for the abundance of historical sites, including the medieval castle.
Newcastle upon Tyne, the namesake of the Newcastle upon Tyne Destination, is the city located on the eastern shores of Northern England. The first construction in the city territory was a bridge from the Roman era. Thus, historical bridges crossing the river of Tyne are reported to be typical sites in the city of Newcastle. Among the most famous historical bridges are the High Level Bridge and Swing Bridge. Tyne Bridge, which opened in 1928, is considered a city symbol. Another popular destination in Newcastle is the Quayside District, where various historical buildings, such as Guildhall, Merchants' Court, and the Bessie Surtees House, can be seen. Newcastle Castle, from which the city got its name, is another historic attraction. The castle was built as part of the city's fortification in medieval times. Nowadays, the building is open to tourists. Newcastle is also a hometown of a considerable number of notable people, such as the musician Sting and physicist Peter Higgs.
Hadrian's Wall is a 73-mile-long construction stretching between the east and west coast of Newcastle upon Tyne Destination. The Wall was built during the Roman era by the emperor Hadrian, after whom it is named. Nowadays, the Wall and towers can still be seen in numerous places across the region. Various trails and educational routes lead along the Wall, teaching about the history and preserving what's left of the ancient construction.
In the southern central part of Newcastle upon Tyne Destination can be found a North Pennines AONB (Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty) and a UNESCO Global Geopark. North Pennines AONB protects a landscape of heather moors, peatlands, dales, hay meadows, woods, local communities, distinctive birds, animals, and plants. Apart from the natural heritage the North Pennines has to offer, the area is also visited for various events. Such an example is the Stargazing Festival, which is held annually. Additionally located in the North Pennines' territory is Killhope, a former lead mine, which currently offers mine tours to visitors.
Alnwick Castle is one of the famous touristic attractions in the Newcastle upon Tyne Destination. The castle was built approximately 950 years ago, during the Norman period. Since then, the castle has served as a military outpost, a teaching college, a refuge for evacuees, and a family home throughout the years. Alnwick Castle is familiar to a number of tourists, as it has appeared in movies numerous times, acting as Hogwarts in the first two Harry Potter movies, as well as Downtown Abbey, and Transformers, among others.
The Newcastle upon Tyne Destination can be divided by the England-Scotland border into the southern and northern parts, with several nature protection areas contributing to the region's landscape. In the north-western part of the territory is located the Galloway Forest Park. Lake District stretches across the southwest of the region. The central part of the territory is covered by nature areas such as Northumberland National Park and Kielder Forest Park, while the eastern shoreline is home to the district's major city, Newcastle, on the shores of the Tyne river. Newcastle upon Tyne Destination disposes of one island, Isle of Man, a self-governing dependency located in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland.
The highest peak in Southern Scotland, which corresponds geographically to the northern half of the Newcastle upon Tyne Destination, is Merrick Peak, found in the Galloway Forest Park. The forest park offers several hiking trails for tourists, with one of them being a hike to Merrick Peak at the height of 843m. The southern part of Newcastle upon Tyne Destination adheres to the part of North England. In the area, various protected natural areas can be found. One such example is the Lake District National Park, which is the largest national park in England and Wales. Lake District is also the most visited national park in the UK, with approximately 16.4 million visitors annually. The area of the park covers several lakes as well as some coastal areas. Nowadays, the park is protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, preserving significant wildlife areas.
Concerning the climate, Newcastle is located in an oceanic climate area, with cool winters and warm summers. The city belongs among the driest in the UK. The warmest month in Newcastle is July, with an average daily temperature of 20°C, while January is the coldest month, with an average temperature of 7°C. February tends to be the driest month in Newcastle, with an average of 40 mm of rainfall. The most precipitation falls during November, with an average of 73 mm.
Newcastle upon Tyne's earliest excavations can be dated back to the year 122, when Romans built the bridge across the Tyne. During the rule of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, a wall, which is nowadays called Hadrian's Wall, was built across northern England along the Tyne–Solway gap. The aforementioned bridge is also connected to the emperor, as it was called Pons Aelius or the 'Bridge of Aelius,' which was Hadrian's family name. After the regress of the Roman Empire, Angles arrived in the territory in the year circa 500. The kingdom of Northumbria came into being, with its kings holding the title of 'Lord of Britain.' The seventh century marked the golden era for the area, as it was considered a cultural and educational hub of Europe. In the 11th century, England was subjected to Norman rule. However, there was significant resistance in Northumbria, with several fights and uprisings. Newcastle and northern parts of England suffered perhaps until the Industrial Revolution.
Throughout the Middle Ages, a Border war against Scotland lasted intermittently for several centuries, while Newcastle was England's northern fortress. To this day, a border between England and Scotland stretches across the Newcastle upon Tyne Destination. During medieval times, Newcastle developed economically as the city became a frontrunner in the wool trade. The commercial industry flourished as well, and by the 18th century, Newcastle became the country's fourth largest printing center after London, Oxford, and Cambridge. The city center was redesigned in the neoclassical style in the 19th century, which can be observed in the town to this day.
Newcastle played a significant role in the 19th century's Industrial Revolution, as it became a center for coal mining, shipbuilding, engineering, munitions, and manufacturing. However, the industry declined in the 20th century. For most of its history, Newcastle was known as a shipbuilding center. In today's time, the economy mostly depends on science, finance, retail, education, tourism, and nightlife.