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Hudson River
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The Hudson River Region is located in the state of New York. The zone follows the state lines between New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Connecticut. Within the region are forests, mountains, trees, rivers, lakes, and hills. Cities that are located inside the region include Middletown, Hudson, New Paltz, Kingston, Poughkeepsie, and Newburgh. The weather in the region fluctuates throughout the year, with an average high of around 74 degrees Fahrenheit and an average low of about 26 degrees. The warmest time of the year is in July, while the coldest time is in February. The district gets rain throughout the year, with the highest chance of precipitation in June, August, July, and December. The region is also relatively humid, with the most humid months being September, October, and August.[6] Activities within the region are generally located near the Hudson River and within the city of Poughkeepsie. At the Hudson River, people can go boating, tubing, swimming, fishing, kayaking, canoeing, and rafting. Other things available are sailing tours, river cruises, touring nearby lighthouses, and going to beaches that are located within the area.[4] Attractions within Poughkeepsie are things such as the Locust Grove Estate, the Bard Avon Opera House, Marist College, Mid-Hudson Children's Museum, Mid-Hudson Heritage Center, and the Frances Lehman Leob Art Center at Vassar College.[5]

What Hudson River is known for

The Hudson River Region is best known for the Hudson River, which has a total length of 315 miles. The Hudson River has an average depth of 30 feet with a maximum depth of 202 feet. The river flows through two states within the United States of America, and the river's main outlet is the Upper New York Bay. The river is named after an English sea explorer named Henry Hudson.[10] Henry Hudson first found the Hudson River in 1609 by accident. After the discovery of the river, Hudson Valley began to be formed. People living in the Hudson Valley struggled with the natives that were in the area because both of them needed the river. In the end, most of the native tribes were forced west or were killed.[3] 

Since it was first found, the Hudson River has been a place that many people visit. Around 25 million people visit the Hudson Valley and the Hudson River per year. In recent years, the tourists that came to the Hudson Valley spent around $2.5 billion. That money went on to support the local economy and the local jobs of thousands of people. A decent amount of that money (around $301 million) was spent on hotels and bed and breakfasts.[9] 

The Hudson River gets many visitors because of the various things to do within the area, some of which include the Walkway Over the Hudson, kayaking, canoeing, sailing tours, river cruises, tubing, rafting, swimming, going to beaches, boating, fishing, and seeing nearby lighthouses. There is also a lot of riverside dining, most of which have a view of the water.[4]

Located in the Hudson River Region near the Hudson River is the city of Poughkeepsie. There is an assortment of things to do within the city, including visiting the Frances Lehman Leob Art Center at Vassar College, the Locust Grove Estate, Mid-Hudson Children's Museum, the Bard Avon Opera House, Marist College, and the Mid-Hudson Heritage Center. The Frances Lehman Leob Art Center at Vassar College was first founded in 1864 as the Vassar College Art Gallery. The art center is based on the Vassar College campus and has a teaching museum, an art repository, and displays of artwork from contemporary times. The building that the art center is located in was designed by Cesar Pelli, who was a world-renowned architect. The building has been called "a symphony of architecture" because of the various architectural features it has. The museum was named after Frances Lehman Leob, the museum's largest donor. The Locust Grove Estate is a 200-acre National Historic Landmark. The mansion that makes up the estate was built in 1951 and is surrounded by plants and gardens. Tours of the house can be given to those who wish to see the interior.[5]

Geography

The Hudson River Region is located near the southern corner of New York. The region goes along the state lines between New York and three states that surround it, namely Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and Massachusetts. The north end of the district wraps around multiple forests while the south end curves along where the state lines between New York and Pennsylvania and New York and Connecticut meet. The region has multiple forests, lakes, and rivers and has an abundance of trees, along with hills and mountains. Cities within the region include Poughkeepsie, Hudson, Kingston, New Paltz, Newburgh, and Middletown. Also within the zone are multiple state forests, wildernesses, wild forests, and reserves. Located close to the Hudson River is the city of Poughkeepsie, which is also located in the Hudson River Region. 

Because of the weather, the best time to visit Poughkeepsie is from the beginning of May to the beginning of July. On average, the surrounding area has a high temperature of 74 degrees Fahrenheit in July and a low of around 26 degrees in February. Because of the fluctuating temperatures, the area gets rain throughout the year, with the most rain usually falling in June. Other likely months of rainfall are July, August, and December. The city of Poughkeepsie does not get snow at any time during the year and instead gets rain during the colder months. The region is relatively humid, with the humidity being the highest in August, September, and October.[6] 

Within the Hudson River Region are multiple plants and animals that inhabit the area, specifically the surrounding landscape of the Hudson River. Animals that live near the Hudson River include diamondback terrapins, oysters, bald eagles, humpback whales, peregrine falcons, seahorses, and Hudson River water nymphs.[7] Also in the Hudson River are various species of fish. Plants that inhabit the Hudson Valley area are plants like australis, cardinals, bee balm monarda bradburiana, wild leek allium tricoccum, dwarf crested irises, New England asters, and great blue lobelias.[8]

History

The Hudson River, which is located in the Hudson River Region, was first found by Henry Hudson in 1609 when he came across it by accident. The Dutch East India Company had hired Hudson to find a shorter passage to India than the already existing ones. His ship, which was called Half Moon, sailed 150 miles up the Hudson to Albany before Hudson discovered that he was taking the wrong path. During this time, nearly 10,000 natives lived in the area. The natives were a part of the Algonquin Confederacy, which consisted of the Delaware, Mohican (also knowns as Mohegan), and Wappinger tribes. The Mohican tribe was kind to the explorers; however, Hudson's crew distrusted the natives. An outbreak of fighting followed the distrust. Over time, more Dutch and European settlers came to the Hudson Valley and had multiple disputes with the natives over land. However, by the end of the century, most native tribes were forced west or killed off by war and smallpox that the Europeans brought in.[3] 

The natives first inhabited the area nearly 10,000 years ago. At the time, the coast of what is now New York extended farther out to sea. Because of the cold climate, there were frozen shores, which people often went out on to hunt for walruses. Over the span of thousands of years, the melting glaciers cut the river's present channel, but people continued living by its shores. The people lived and depended on nature for things like food, clothing, and settlements. They lived like this for thousands of years before the Half Moon arrived in 1609.[3] 

Years after Hudson first arrived at the Hudson River, which is now currently part of the Hudson River Region, the American Revolution began in the 1700s. The colonists realized the river played a key role in the transporting of troops and supplies, and if the British managed to gain control over it, they could conquer the American forces. However, West Point, Fort Clinton, Fort Montgomery, and Fort Constitution had already been built in the area to serve the purpose of preventing the British from advancing up the river. Colonists created the Great Chain, which consisted of two-foot-long iron links that stretched across the river between Fort Constitution and West Point in 1778. The Great Chain was put in place to stop British forces from sailing upriver from New York City. The Great Chain, however, was never put to the test because the British never reached it. General Benedict Arnold, who was in command of West Point, was offered 20,000 pounds of sterling by the British to help them take control of the Hudson. In 1780, the general attempted to surrender the fort to the British. The attempt did not succeed, however, because of the capture of Major John Adre. After his capture, Major John Adre told the American of the plot, and General Benedict Arnold barely escaped to a British warship.[3] 

The Hudson River, the river which the Hudson River Region is named after, became a tourist destination in 1807 after the invention of the steamboat. There were approximately 150 steamboats on the Hudson River by 1850 that were used for industry, commerce, and leisure. These boats carried millions of passengers up and down the Hudson River. When the Erie Canal opened in 1825, linking the Hudson River to Lake Erie, the Hudson River became a trade channel. Many writers and artists came to the area during this period, including painters such as John Casilear, Thomas Cole, Jasper Cropsey, Thomas Rossiter, Robert Weir, and Frederic E. Church. These painters became known as the Hudson River School of Painting. The writers of William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, and James Fenimore Cooper found inspiration for their writings during their stay.[3] 

Many German and Irish immigrants flooded into New York City in the 1840s after having been forced out of their homes by revolution and famine. While this was happening, the industry continued to develop to meet the military's needs, which was aided by the advent of railroads into the territory. The now crowded city of New York became a breeding ground for tuberculosis and other diseases, and, as a result, many city dwellers moved to the Hudson Valley and saw it as a health retreat. Some of these people were the more wealthy population of New York City, and they built mansions in the surrounding landscape.[3] 

At the end of the 19th century, there was a struggle to preserve Hudson Valley's environment and natural beauty. Railroads and various industries had been built along the river, and, as a result, much of the valley had been clear cut. The federal government created and established the Division of Forestry and began to create national parks. Conservation efforts were being met, and parks were being created; however, when America got involved in WWII, all of the conservation efforts came to a halt. Years later, the conservation efforts were continued, and more land was set aside to be national forests.[3]

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