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Jihocesky kraj

The territory of the Czech Republic is divided into 13 regions. The South Bohemian Region is located in the southern part of the historical land of Bohemia, but it also includes a small part of southwestern Moravia. The region borders four other Czech regions, Plzen, Central Bohemia, Vysočina, and South Moravia. On the south, it borders Austria and also Germany. České Budějovice is not only a cultural and historical metropolis but also a capital city of the South Bohemia region. The area of the region is 10,056 km² which represents 12.8% of the total area of the Czech Republic. The total population of the South Bohemia area is 642,133 people, which translates to a density of 64 people per 1 km², resulting in the lowest population density in the Czech Republic. 

What Jihocesky kraj is known for

The South Bohemia Region is one of the 13 administrative regions of the Czech Republic, with České Budějovice as its cultural and economic centre and largest city. The biggest river crossing its territory is Vltava. By following its stream to the south, one eventually comes across the Český Krumlov, which has often been assumed to be a small town. However, the town is dominated by the Český Krumlov state castle and chateau, which is the second-largest castle and chateau complex in the Czech Republic and it also belongs among some of the most important monuments in Central Europe. One of the reasons for the high attractiveness of this complex might be the Castle Lapidary, in which original baroque sculptures from the castle grounds are exhibited. Another interesting attraction of this castle is probably the bear breeding tradition, which has been kept since the reign of the last Rosenbergs. It is common for children to like to stop above the moat, where the bears live.[2]

The region itself is filled with historical and cultural monuments. Another worth mentioning is the Hluboká over Vltava chateau. The chateau has been rebuilt multiple times since first being erected. The last time, it was rebuilt in romantic style in the mid-19th century. The reconstruction was inspired by the royal castle Windsdor in England. The walls and ceilings of the interiors are covered by woodcarvings and noble wood. Some rooms are also decorated with paintings by 16th-18th century European masters.[3]

The South Bohemia region offers not only historical and cultural sights but is also rich in natural attractions. The area of the south-eastern border of the region belongs to the Šumava National Park territory. The Šumava National Park nature flows continuously across the borders to Germany into the German Nationalpark Bavarian Forest. A great number of rare species can be found in the area of Šumava. This species diversity is caused by a wide variety of habitats; from alluvial plains to alpine spruce forests. The Šumava national park is a popular holiday destination, for hikers and cyclists in particular. Many natural and cultural sights are connected to more than 500 km of summer-marked trails and bike trails.[4]

Lipno Dam, the biggest reservoir and water area in the Czech Republic, was built on the Vltava river in the years 1952-1959. Its main purpose is generating electrical power, however, Lipno has also become an important touristic destination, due to its untouched nature and wide range of activities. A number of various resorts, hotels, and camps are situated in this area. Some of the more unique attractions (except the swimming and water sports) are, for example, a bobsled track or a rope park, which are situated in small proximity to the Lipno Dam. [9]

Regarding the business and production, the world-renowned Czech National Brewery, Budvar, resides in the city České Budějovice. The brewery has a long historical tradition, which started in 1895 and continues to this day. Only in 2020 has the brewery produced 1,730,000 hl of beer. Throughout the years Budvar has gained over 60 international awards evaluating not only its taste but also the quality. [5]


The South Bohemia area is spread over the South Bohemian Basin, České Budějovice Basin, and Třeboň Basin. In the south-western part of the region is a low range of mountains, Šumava National Park, where the highest hill of the region, Plechy, is situated. Other mountains of the region are the Brdy Highlands in the very northern part of the region, the Central-Bohemian Highlands in the northern part of the region, the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands in the eastern part of the region, and the Novohrad Mountains in the south of the region. The destination is located in the drainage basin of the Vltava river, which is also the most significant river in the region. Other important rivers flowing through this area are Malše, Lužnice, Otava, Nezarka and Lomnice. Historical Bohemia region and the South Bohemia region in particular is known for its many ponds. In the past, more than seven thousand ponds were established across the region to help with the economic situation. Lipno Dam situated in the southern part of the region is the largest dam and also the largest water area in the Czech Republic.[1]

The mosaic of communities inhabiting the South Bohemian region is very diverse, including very dry, grassy, rocky steppes, thermophilic oak groves, rubble forests, beech forests, wet meadows and smaller peat bogs. The fauna of the region is far from being examined in as much detail as the flora. This is mainly due to the huge species variability, especially invertebrates, of which many very large species groups are only in the early stages of discovering.[6]

Regarding the climate, the warmest months of the year are on average July and August with the average temperature of 24°C. The coldest month is January with average daily temperature of 1°C. The wettest months generally are May, June and July with approximately 23 rainy days a month.[7]


Rich evidence of archeological finds suggests that the oldest settlements of Mesolithic hunters and fishermen were established in the late Stone Age and Middle Stone Age (approximately 9000-6000 BC) when the area of ​​the western gate of the České Budějovice Basin was densely populated. Settlements were also found along the rivers Vltava, Malše, Otava, and Lužnice. The landscape was difficult to penetrate because of the continuous forests, however, the rivers and trails leading in their valleys were the easiest transport routes. In the sixth millennium, agriculture was established, which caused a great revolution in the lifestyle. In the Late Stone Age, approximately 4000–2000 BC, the territory of southern Bohemia was sparsely populated. By the end of the Bronze Age, the central part of the Bohemia area was inhabited by people with a mound culture. Later, the southwestern parts of Bohemia were part of the Celtic territory, which had a center in the northern Alps and the upper Danube. In the second and first century BC, the Celtic towns of Třísov, Zvíkov, and Nevězice were established. At the turn of the century, the gradually declining Celtic society was replaced by the expansion of the Germanic tribes. Another important milestone is the arrival of Slavs in the sixth and seventh centuries. 

By the end of the 10th century, the territory of today's South Bohemian Region belonged to the Přemysl family. In the 12th century, the Přemysl companions and the Vítek family acquired numerous states in southern Bohemia as a fief from the monarch. In the 13th century, the oldest towns were formed from the original settlements, such as České Budějovice, Písek, Jindřichův Hradec, Netolice, Nové Hrady, Třeboň, and Volyňe, whose preserved cores are, in most cases, protected as monuments today.

The Hussite revolution in the 15th century brought many human and material losses. Nevertheless, due to the events that took place, this period can be described as one of the most important periods in the history of today's South Bohemian Region. The next hundreds of years are marked by the stagnation of economic development. 

The First World War and the defeat of Austria-Hungary brought the independence of the Czech lands and in 1918, the Czechoslovak Republic had been established.

By the end of the 1930s, Czechoslovakia lost the Sudetenland to the Nazis in Germany. Later, the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was created, as Czechoslovakia had been dissolved because of Germany. For several centuries before World War II, the southern part of the South Bohemia territory was inhabited mainly by people of German origin. During the years 1945–1947, this population had to be moved away, which caused the depopulation of many areas around the Czech-Austrian and Czech-German borders. As a result of insufficient resettlement and the rise of the Iron Curtain under the communist regime after World War II, a number of small villages, especially in the Prachatice and Český Krumlov regions, disappeared. This development was accompanied by the loss of the relationship of the majority of the rural population to the land and the disintegration of the village community with its customs. After the fall of the Iron Curtain and the formation of the Czech Republic as we know it today, the South Bohemian region, together with the other 12 Czech regions have was established in the year 2000.